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Grid version 2

The responsive layout grid adapts to screen size and orientation, ensuring consistency across layouts.

The Grid component works well for a layout with a known number of columns. The columns can be configured with multiple breakpoints to specify the column span of each child.

What's changed

We built the Grid component from scratch in order to:

  • Fix known issues introduced in Material UI v5.
  • Simplify the logic with CSS variables, removing the unnecessary item prop and reducing CSS specificity.
  • Introduce a proper fix for preventing a scrollbar by switching between negative margin approaches.
  • Set negative margins of equal size on all sides of the grid container by default.

Since the new implementation is considered a breaking change, we introduced it as Unstable_Grid2 to gather feedbacks from the community before making it stable in the next major release of Material UI.

We encourage everyone to try the new version of the Grid by visiting the Grid v2 migration guide.

How it works

The grid system is implemented with the Grid component:

  • It uses CSS Flexbox (rather than CSS Grid) for high flexibility.
  • The grid is always a flex item. Use the container prop to add a flex container.
  • Item widths are set in percentages, so they're always fluid and sized relative to their parent element.
  • There are five default grid breakpoints: xs, sm, md, lg, and xl. If you need custom breakpoints, check out custom breakpoints grid.
  • You can give integer values for each breakpoint, to indicate how many of the 12 available columns are occupied by the component when the viewport width satisfies the breakpoint constraints.
  • It uses negative margins and padding to create gaps between children, which behave similarly to the gap CSS property.
  • It does not support row spanning. Children elements cannot span multiple rows. We recommend using CSS Grid if you need this functionality.
  • It does not automatically place children. It will try to fit the children one by one, and if there is not enough space, the rest of the children will start on the next line, and so on. If you need auto-placement, we recommend using CSS Grid instead.

Fluid grids

Fluid grids use columns that scale and resize content. A fluid grid's layout can use breakpoints to determine if the layout needs to change dramatically.

Basic grid

In order to create a grid layout, you need a container. Use the container prop to create a grid container that wraps the grid items (the Grid is always an item).

Column widths are integer values between 1 and 12. They can be applied at any breakpoint to indicate how many columns are occupied by the component.

A value given to a breakpoint applies to all the other wider breakpoints unless overridden—see Multiple breakpoints for details. For example, a component with xs={12} occupies the whole viewport width regardless of its size.

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Multiple breakpoints

Components may have multiple widths defined, causing the layout to change at the defined breakpoint. Width values given to larger breakpoints override those given to smaller breakpoints.

For example, a component with xs={12} sm={6} occupies the entire viewport width when the viewport is less than 600 pixels wide. When the viewport grows beyond this size, the component occupies half of the total width—six columns rather than 12.

xs=6 md=8
xs=6 md=4
xs=6 md=4
xs=6 md=8
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Use the spacing prop to control the space between children. The spacing value can be any positive number (including decimals) or a string. The prop is converted into a CSS property using the theme.spacing() helper.

The following demo illustrates the use of the spacing prop:

<Grid container spacing={2}>

Row and column spacing

The rowSpacing and columnSpacing props let you specify row and column gaps independently of one another. They behave similarly to the row-gap and column-gap properties of CSS Grid.

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Responsive values

You can set prop values to change when a given breakpoint is active. For instance, we can implement Material Design's recommended responsive layout grid, as seen in the following demo:

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Responsive values are supported by:


The auto-layout feature gives equal space to all items present. When you set the width of one item, the others will automatically resize to match it.

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Variable width content

When a breakpoint's value is given as "auto" instead of true or a number, then a column's size will automatically adjust to match the width of its content. The demo below shows how this works:

variable width content
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Nested grid

The grid container that renders as a direct child inside another grid container is a nested grid that inherits its columns and spacing from the top level. It will also inherit the props of the top-level grid if it receives those props.

Inheriting spacing

A nested grid container will inherits the row and column spacing from its parent unless the spacing prop is specified to the instance.

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Inheriting columns

A nested grid container will inherits the columns from its parent unless the columns prop is specified to the instance.

nested xs=12/24
nested xs=12/24
nested xs=6/12
nested xs=6/12


Use the columns prop to change the default number of columns (12) in the grid, as shown below:

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Offset props (such as smOffset, mdOffset) push an item to the right side of the grid. These props accept:

  • numbers—for example, mdOffset={2} pushes an item two columns to the right when the viewport size is equal to or greater than the md breakpoint.
  • "auto"—this pushes the item to the far right side of the grid container.

The demo below illustrates how to use the offset props:

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Custom breakpoints

If you specify custom breakpoints in the theme, you can use those names as grid item props in responsive values:

import { ThemeProvider, createTheme } from '@mui/material/styles';

function Demo() {
  return (
        breakpoints: {
          values: {
            laptop: 1024,
            tablet: 640,
            mobile: 0,
            desktop: 1280,
      <Grid container spacing={{ mobile: 1, tablet: 2, laptop: 3 }}>
        {Array.from(Array(4)).map((_, index) => (
          <Grid mobile={6} tablet={4} laptop={3} key={index}>
            <div>{index + 1}</div>


You have to set module augmentation on the theme breakpoints interface. Properties set to true will appear as {key}(size prop) and {key}Offset(offset prop).

declare module '@mui/system' {
  interface BreakpointOverrides {
    // Your custom breakpoints
    laptop: true;
    tablet: true;
    mobile: true;
    desktop: true;
    // Remove default breakpoints
    xs: false;
    sm: false;
    md: false;
    lg: false;
    xl: false;

Disable the scrollbar

If you use grid as a container in a small viewport, you might see a horizontal scrollbar because the negative margin is applied on all sides of the grid container.

To disable this scrollbar, set the disableEqualOverflow prop to true. This removes the negative margins from the bottom and right sides of the grid to prevent overflow.

The demo below shows how this works:

Scroll bar appears
`disableEqualOverflow` prevents scrollbar
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Centered elements

To center a grid item's content, specify display="flex" directly on the item. Then use justifyContent and/or alignItems to adjust the position of the content, as shown below:

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Full border


Column direction and reversing

The column width (xs, ..., xl) and offset props are not supported within containers that use direction="column" or direction="column-reverse".

Size and offset props define the number of columns the component will use for a given breakpoint. They are intended to control the width using flex-basis in row containers, but they will impact the height in column containers. If used, these props may have undesirable effects on the height of the Grid item elements.